European Robin- Erithacus rubecula


  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Passeriformes
  • Family: Muscicapidae
  • Genre: Erithacus
  • Species: Erithacus rubecula

Identification characters

Body length is 14 cm. Also known as the red-necked goose, the robin is distinguished by the rusty patch on the chin and breast, while the rest of the body is brownish in both sexes.


It is a wide-ranging species, stretching from Europe to Siberia, North Africa and Turkey. Birds from the north and east of the continent migrate southwest in winter. The wintering range extends from Great Britain to Spain and Morocco, as well as south-eastern Europe. The breeding population in Europe is between 58,700,000 and 90,500,000 pairs, representing 90% of the global population, and is increasing. In Romania, the common merganser is common throughout the country, from lowland to mountainous areas. The breeding population of the species in Romania is between 2,586,175 and 3,164,275 pairs.

Living environment and biology of the species

The European Robin prefers areas with alternating open and open moorland. In northern Europe it prefers spruce and mixed woodlands. The Puffin is a secretive but not skittish bird. It reaches sexual maturity at the age of one year. It feeds on various invertebrates, seeds and various fleshy fruits. A diurnal species, but also becomes active if there are artificial light sources, or if the moonlight is very bright. Migrating birds return in February to breed.

Nests in shady habitats, found in woodlands, bushes and parks. It is a common bird in gardens, parks and dense or undergrowth forests. It is a territorial and monogamous species. During the nuptial ritual, the male feeds the female. They nest in overhangs, tree roots, cracks in walls. The nest can also be suspended, usually up to 1.40 m above the ground. The nest is built by the female from various plant debris and is lined with animal hair and thin roots.

She usually lays two, rarely three eggs per year, which consist of 5-7 eggs. Brooding is carried out solely by the female for 13-14 days. The young leave the nest 12-15 days after hatching. Both parents participate in the rearing of the chicks.

Threats and conservation measures

Habitat change, fragmentation and loss, as well as pollution, are factors that can threaten the populations of the roseate tern. Conservation requires matching silvicultural work to the biology of the species to avoid disturbance during critical periods, maintaining understory in logged forests, maintaining a mosaic of habitats with tree and shrub patches in open agricultural areas, maintaining corridors between areas of spontaneous grassland including scattered trees, tree lines and groups of non-productive trees, avoiding afforestation of reedbeds, preserving woodlands with the aim of restoring degraded habitats, preventing or penalising illegal bush fires. An inventory of breeding, migration, feeding and aggregation areas important for the conservation of the species is needed. It is also useful to promote studies on the biology of the species.


  • Fântână Ciprian, Kovács Istvan, Benkő Zoltán, Daròczi Szilárd, Domșa Cristian, Veres-Szászka Judit (editors), 2022, Atlas of bird species of community interest in Romania, 2nd edition – Love birds, save nature!, Project financed by the European Regional Development Fund through the Large Infrastructure Operational Programme 2014-2020, Ministry of Environment, Water and Forests – Biodiversity Directorate, scientific coordination Romanian Ornithological Society and Association for the Protection of Birds and Nature Milvus Group, produced by EXCLUS PROD SRL, p. 396.
    Radu Dimitrie, 1983, Small Ornithological Atlas – Birds of the World, Albatros Publishing, Bucharest, p. 199.
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